Beamline Practicals

We have 23 laboratory courses (beamline practicals) using SPring-8 facilities.
Beamline practicals are scheduled on October 1st (Tue) and 2nd (Wed), 9:30-17:30.
Please note that the number of students for each course is limited and not all requests can be met. In addition, your preferred Beamline practicals may have been changed due to cancellation caused by the Beamline mechanical problems.
*It is recommended to wear proper shoes and shirt with sleeves during the beamline practice. Sandals or high-heeled shoes are not appropriate.

BL01B1: PDF 347KB
Theme: in-situ XAFS Measurement of Catalyst Samples
Paul Fons (AIST & JASRI/SPring-8) and Toshiaki Ina (JASRI/SPring-8)
The bending magnet beamline, BL01B1, is used for various applications of XAFS over a wide energy range from 3.8 to 113 keV. In the practical training course, we plan to show how to measure XAFS spectra, which covers alignment of X-ray optics and sample position. We will also demonstrate in-situ time-resolved quick scanning XAFS measurement of catalyst samples under reaction condition.

BL02B1: PDF 169KB
Theme: Absolute Structure Determination from Single Crystal Diffraction
Kunihisa Sugimoto, Nobuhiro Yasuda and Akihiko Fujiwara (JASRI/SPring-8)
The beamline of BL02B1 is designed for single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. One of advantage of single crystal analysis is absolute structure determination, which is the spatial arrangement of the atoms of a physically identified chiral crystal. For absolute structure and its determination, the inversion distinguishing power of an X-ray diffraction experiment with dispersive scatterers are examined. In this beamline practical course, we will plan the experiment how to determine an absolute structure from single crystal diffraction.

BL02B2: PDF 16KB
Theme: X-ray Powder Diffraction Experiments and Rietveld Analysis for Precise Structure Determination
Kim Jungeun and Chul Ho Song (JASRI/SPring-8)
Precise structure determination by Rietveld method using high-accurate powder-diffraction data is now indispensable to materials science. In the BL practical, the participants will learn a standard procedure of synchrotron radiation powder diffraction experiments for obtaining highly accurate data, and technique for structural analysis with the Rietveld method. Advanced structural analysis for visualizing the electron density distribution conducted at BL02B2 will be demonstrated.

BL04B1: PDF 215KB
Theme: In situ Observation of High-Pressure Phase Change of Simple Material
Yuji Higo (JASRI/SPring-8)
The BL04B1 beamline is designed for conducting researches on the structures and physical properties under high-pressure. In this course, we will observe the high-pressure phase change of KCl using a large-volume multianvil device and an energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique. KCl is a well-known crystal which is reversibly-transformed from B1 to B2 phase with pressure. In the practice, precise phase boundary and lattice constants of KCl are determined from in situ X-ray diffraction analysis.

BL04B2: PDF 286KB
Theme: Structure of High-Temperature Levitated Liquids Probed by High-energy X-ray Diffraction – The Relationship between Liquid Structure and Glass Forming Ability
Shinji Kohara (JASRI/SPring-8)
High-brilliance and high-energy X-rays are one of the greatest advantages of SPring-8. The use of high-energy X-rays allows us to measure diffraction patterns up to high values of the momentum transfer in reciprocal space in transmission geometry, using small scattering angles and small correction terms. This fortunate combination provides more detailed and reliable structural information of disordered materials (glasses, liquids and amorphous materials) than it has hitherto been available. On the other hand, the use of the levitation technique allows us to achieve deeply supercooled states, because there is no interface between the liquid and a container wall. Hence we can obtain new metastable materials (glasses) from the supercooled levitated liquid. In this course, we will try to levitate an oxide melt at a temperature beyond 2,000 ˚C by using a conical nozzle levitator. We will learn how we can obtain reliable diffraction data and how we analyze the data. Furthermore we will try to perform structure modelling of disordered materials on the basis of diffraction data employing a computer simulation technique, in order to understand the relationship between the structure of a liquid and its glass forming ability.

BL05SS: PDF 1.39MB
Theme: Undulator Radiation and its Application to Beam Diagnostics
Mitsuhiro Masaki, Shiro Takano, Kazuhiro Tamura and Akira Mochihashi (JASRI/SPring-8)
The spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of undulator radiation reflect the transversal and longitudinal properties of stored electron beam in the storage ring. To study basic characteristics of undulator radiations, we will provide an opportunity to measure their spectral fluxes and spatial profiles. As an example of applications to beam diagnostics, this laboratory course will include observations of stored electron beam oscillations at the topping up injection timing, using a turn-by-turn beam profile monitor (TTPM).

BL08W: PDF 380KB
Theme: Spin Moment Determination of Ferro- or Ferrimagnetic Materials using Magnetic Compton Scattering
Masayoshi Itou and Yoshiharu Sakurai (JASRI/SPring-8)
Magnetic Compton scattering is one of the synchrotron-radiation-based techniques to measure the spin moment of ferro- or ferromagnetic materials. The training begins with a brief introduction to magnetic Compton scattering and its techniques, followed by on-the-job trainings for spectrometer calibration, sample setting and data acquisition, with a ferromagnetic Fe reference-sample and a ferromagnetic compound. If you carry a well-characterized bulk-sample, we will consider its preliminary measurement on your request in advance.

Theme: Probing Atomic Vibration using Nuclear Resonant Inelastic Scattering
Yoshitaka Yoda (JASRI/SPring-8)
Quantized vibrational motion is called a phonon, which is investigated by several spectroscopic methods such as Raman spectroscopy, inelastic X-ray scattering and neutron scattering. Its typical energy range is ~100 meV. Nuclear resonant scattering (NRS) is caused by a nuclear level, which has ~neV energy width. Every isotope has different nuclear level, so NRS has distinguished feature of just probing a specific isotope. Recently biochemical materials such as an enzyme have been intensively studied by NRS to focus on its active center in the complicated system. In the beamline practical, we will introduce a high-resolution monochromator and a fast timing detector, which have crucial roles to realize this spectroscopy at synchrotron radiation and a model sample will be measured in the cryostat.

Theme: Hard X-ray Spectroscopy at carbon K-edge: Inelastic X-ray Scattering
Nozomu Hiraoka (NSRRC/SPring-8)
Brilliant and energy-tunable third-generation synchrotron radiation sources allow us to carry out various types of spectroscopic experiments in the hard x-ray region. The undulator beamline BL12XU is primarily designed for resonant and non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS and NIXS) experiments. Participants at our course will learn basic ideas of inelastic x-ray scattering. In practice, we will perform a NIXS experiment: We will measure carbon K-edge (around 284 eV) in diamond, graphite, and C60 fullerene, using 10-keV x-rays.

Theme: Electronic State Observation of Solute Molecules under Ambient Condition
Takashi Tokushima and Hiromi Sato (RIKEN/SPring-8)
Since electronic state of molecules governs properties and chemical reaction, Investigation of electronic state is an important subject of chemical physics. At the soft x-ray beamline BL17SU, liquid flow cells using thin film window and a high performance spectrometer have been developed for spectroscopic studies of liquids and solutions under ambient condition. In the course, the participants will experience soft x-ray absorption and emission measurements of the solution samples. Both of these methods are the kinds of photon-in photon-out experiment, and are the powerful method applicable to investigations of the electronic structure of various systems including insulators, liquids and solution.

Theme: Pump-Probe Technique for Picosecond Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction
Yoshihito Tanaka (RIKEN/SPring-8)
The pulsed time structure of synchrotron radiation (SR) and the synchronization technique between SR and a femtosecond pulsed laser have offered the opportunity to make pump-probe measurements with 40 ps time resolution. Application of the technique to x-ray diffraction brings out the investigation on fast structural dynamics in sub-nanosecond time scale. Furthermore, the recently-developed x-ray free electron laser, “SACLA”, which generates intense femtosecond pulsed x-rays, approaches the femtosecond time-resolution. The course will introduce the students to the timing control and monitoring techniques of the SR and laser pulses, and demonstration of the picosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurement for lattice dynamics of a single semiconductor crystal at BL19LXU.

BL19B2:PDF 574KB
Theme: X-ray Powder Diffraction Experiment
Keiichi Osaka, Masugu Sato and Tomotaka Miyazawa (JASRI/SPring-8)
X-ray powder diffraction technique is powerful tool for structural analysis of various materials. Utilization of synchrotron radiation to this technique ensures the efficient experiment for the researcher of new functional material because it realize high speed measurement and high quality data. In this practical training course, we plan to let you experience the measurement and the analysis of X-ray powder diffraction from reference samples using Debye-Scherrer camera with automatic sample changer at BL19B2. This course's purpose is to let XRD beginners know what kind of information about materials can be obtained from X-ray powder diffraction.

Theme: Instrumentation for X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis Experiment at BL20XU
Akihisa Takeuchi (JASRI/SPring-8)
X-ray fluorescence measurement which enables elemental analysis will be introduced at undulator beamline BL20XU. In the practical training course, we plan to show how to measure x-ray fluorescence spectra, which covers alignment of x-ray optics and sample positioning. We will also demonstrate elemental mapping of test samples by using microbeam scanning experiment.

BL20B2: PDF 58KB
Theme: Detector Evaluation for Micro-Tomography Experiments at BL20B2
Kentaro Uesugi (JASRI/SPring-8)
Micro-tomography experiments are carried out at many synchrotron radiation facilities in the world. X-ray image detector is one of a key device for those experiments. In the practice, we will start from evaluating of the characteristics of image detector for tomography. Some examples of absorption based micro-tomography will be shown as a demonstration.

Theme: Soft-X-ray Spectroscopy Techniques for Studies of Electronic and Magnetic States of Solids
Tetsuya Nakamura, Takayuki Muro, Takuo Ohkochi and Tomohiro Matsushita (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL25SU provides circularly polarized soft x-ray of photon-energy between 115 eV and 2000 eV. Periodical helicity switching (0.1 - 10Hz) using the twin helical undulators and high energy resolution of E/E > 10,000 are the leading features of the beamline. The helicity switching technique gives great advantage to magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurement, and the high energy resolution is crucial for photoemission spectroscopy. We propose a couple of beamline practices, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) experiment and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), in the first and the second day, respectively. Participants of the beamline practice at the BL25SU will take part in either MCD or ARPES experiment. Following an introduction of the optical components and measurement apparatuses installed at the beamline, they will learn how we measure precise MCD spectra or electronic band structure. We believe that the planned course will provide a fruitful opportunity for participants interested in soft X-ray spectroscopy techniques and the study of electronic and magnetic properties of materials.

BL28B2: PDF 339KB
Theme: in-situ Energy Dispersive XAFS Measurement of Catalyst Samples
Tomoya Uruga, Kiyofumi Nitta and Kazuo Kato (JASRI/SPring-8)
The bending magnet beamline, BL28B2, is used for various applications of time-resolved energy dispersive XAFS (DXAFS). In the practical training course, we plan to show how to measure and analysis DXAFS spectra. We will also demonstrate in-situ time-resolved DXAFS measurement of catalyst samples under reaction condition.

BL38B1: PDF 1.51MB
Theme: Data Collection and S-SAD Phasing of Protein Crystals
Kazuya Hasegawa (JASRI/SPring-8)
Characteristics of synchrotron radiation (SR) are closely related to those of the source electron beam. For example, pulsed nature of SR is originated from bunched structure of the electron beam. Brilliance of SR is dominated by transverse size and angular divergence of the electron beam. This laboratory course is practice at the SPring-8 diagnostics beamline I (BL38B2), where SR form a bending magnet is exploited for diagnostics of the electron beam. The course will include measurement of bunched structure of the electron beam, bunch length and bunch spacing, with a visible light streak camera.

Theme: Handling of X-ray Polarization and Application to X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy
Motohiro Suzuki, Naomi Kawamura and Masaichiro Mizumaki (JASRI/SPring-8)
X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is X-ray absorption spectroscopy using circularly polarized X-rays. This is a powerful technique to investigate magnetic materials, providing element specificity, electronic-shell selectivity, and angular-momentum sensitivity. XMCD experiments in the hard X-ray region (>4 keV) require no ultra-high vacuum condition and are particularly useful to study magnetism under multiple extreme conditions (high magnetic field, low temperature, and high pressure). In the practice, you will learn how to tune several devices at the beamline, the undulator, double-crystal monochromator, and X-ray phase plate, to generate a circularly polarized X-ray beam. You will take some XMCD data by static and polarization-modulation techniques to know that how the modulation technique is useful for improving the data quality. A practice of the sum-rule analysis to determine the magnetic moments from the measured XMCD spectra will be performed.

Theme: Microbeam Small-angle X-ray Diffraction of Hair
Noboru Ohta (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL40XU is a high-flux beamline. Microbeam small-angle x-ray diffraction is one of the applications of high-flux x-ray available at BL40XU. We plan to provide training on adjustment of pinhole optics, data collection and analysis using hair as an experimental sample.

BL40B2: PDF 42KB
Theme: Small-angle Scattering Experiments
Naoto Yagi and Hiroshi Sekiguchi (JASRI/SPring-8)
Small-angle scattering/diffraction experiments require sophisticated optics (monochromator, focusing mirror, slits) and a detector system. Examples at small-angle beamlines (BL40B2 and BL40XU) will be explained. As a typical application, a protein solution scattering experiment will be conducted at BL40B2 with some instructions on the data analysis. Instrumentation for time-resolved experiments is also explained.

Theme: Microspectroscopy using Infrared Synchrotron Radiation
Taro Moriwaki (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL43IR provides infrared radiation of high brilliance from a large bending radius (39.3 m) bending magnet. The beamline is therefore suitable for the microspectroscopy applications at the diffraction limit scale of approximately 10-100 micrometer depending on the wavelength. We plan to provide an opportunity to use the infrared microscope at the beamline of the practical training on adjustment of the optics, sample preparation (human hair cross-sectioning), adjustment of the microscope and measurements (two-dimensional mapping of the hair sample).

Theme: Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Jin-Young Son, Hiroshi Oji and Yi-Tao Cui (JASRI/SPring-8)
Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful tool for observation of the distributions of chemical states from surface to bulk (several tens of nanometer). BL46XU is just a beamline used for this purpose and dedicated for industrial applications, which equipped with an undulator light source, double-crystal and channel-cut monochromators as well as a hemispherical type electron energy analyzer. The aim of this course is to learn the principle of HAXPES and gain experience of measuring photoelectron spectra of various materials with 8 keV monochromated X-ray.

BL47XU: PDF 3.29MB
Theme: Imaging Microscopy with Fresnel Zone Plate Objective
Yoshio Suzuki (JASRI/SPring-8)
The Fresnel zone plate is not only a beam-focusing tool but also an image-forming devise. Most of x-ray imaging microscopes are, so far, made using the Fresnel zone plate as an objective lens. That is because, in the Fresnel zone plate optics, astigmatism, spherical aberrations, coma, and field are negligibly. We will present a lecture on zone plate optics as an image-forming system and typical demonstrations for hard x-ray imaging microscopy.